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This page will have a copy of our latest organization newsletter. We will update the page each month.

Recent News from municipality Results.
In Anand district, where the commission had used electronic voting machines (EVMs), the BJP gained control of Khambhat municipality by securing 23 seats while the Congress won 12 seats.
October 2004 Membership Newsletter

Graphic of newspapers; Size=130 pixels wide

Taken from: BBC
Saturday, 19 January, 2002, 06:33 GMT
Lost city 'could rewrite history'
Excavated Harrapan remains (Picture: North Park University)
The city is believed to predate the Harappan civilisation
By BBC News Online's Tom Housden

The remains of what has been described as a huge lost city may force historians and archaeologists to radically reconsider their view of ancient human history.

Marine scientists say archaeological remains discovered 36 metres (120 feet) underwater in the Gulf of Cambay off the western coast of India could be over 9,000 years old.

The vast city - which is five miles long and two miles wide - is believed to predate the oldest known remains in the subcontinent by more than 5,000 years.

The site was discovered by chance last year by oceanographers from India's National Institute of Ocean Technology conducting a survey of pollution.

Using sidescan sonar - which sends a beam of sound waves down to the bottom of the ocean they identified huge geometrical structures at a depth of 120ft.

Debris recovered from the site - including construction material, pottery, sections of walls, beads, sculpture and human bones and teeth has been carbon dated and found to be nearly 9,500 years old.

Lost civilisation

The city is believed to be even older than the ancient Harappan civilisation, which dates back around 4,000 years.

Marine archaeologists have used a technique known as sub-bottom profiling to show that the buildings remains stand on enormous foundations.

The whole model of the origins of civilisation will have to be remade from scratch

Graham Hancock

Author and film-maker Graham Hancock - who has written extensively on the uncovering of ancient civilisations - told BBC News Online that the evidence was compelling:

"The [oceanographers] found that they were dealing with two large blocks of apparently man made structures.

"Cities on this scale are not known in the archaeological record until roughly 4,500 years ago when the first big cities begin to appear in Mesopotamia.

"Nothing else on the scale of the underwater cities of Cambay is known. The first cities of the historical period are as far away from these cities as we are today from the pyramids of Egypt," he said.

Chronological problem

This, Mr Hancock told BBC News Online, could have massive repercussions for our view of the ancient world.

Harappan site in Pakistan, BBC
Harappan remains have been found in India and Pakistan

"There's a huge chronological problem in this discovery. It means that the whole model of the origins of civilisation with which archaeologists have been working will have to be remade from scratch," he said.

However, archaeologist Justin Morris from the British Museum said more work would need to be undertaken before the site could be categorically said to belong to a 9,000 year old civilisation.

"Culturally speaking, in that part of the world there were no civilisations prior to about 2,500 BC. What's happening before then mainly consisted of small, village settlements," he told BBC News Online.

Dr Morris added that artefacts from the site would need to be very carefully analysed, and pointed out that the C14 carbon dating process is not without its error margins.

It is believed that the area was submerged as ice caps melted at the end of the last ice age 9-10,000 years ago

Although the first signs of a significant find came eight months ago, exploring the area has been extremely difficult because the remains lie in highly treacherous waters, with strong currents and rip tides.

The Indian Minister for Human Resources and ocean development said a group had been formed to oversee further studies in the area.

"We have to find out what happened then ... where and how this civilisation vanished," he said.

Indian site suggests ancient civilisation
Scientists in India say an underwater archaeological site off the country's west coast may be the remains of a civilisation more than 9,000-years old.

The minister for ocean technology Murli Manohar Joshi said wooden artifacts discovered along a now-submerged river bank in the Gulf of Cambay in the Arabian Sea had been carbon-dated and revealed to be from around 7,500 BC.

Last year, scientists thought that the submerged structures at the site were evidence of the 4,000 year old Harappan civilisation - thought to have been the oldest in the region.

But this latest discovery, if confirmed, suggests the subcontinent may have been home to an even older civilisation than the Harappan people.

From the newsroom of the BBC World Service

  Narmada River

The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. It forms the traditional boundary between the Deccan and the great Indian plain, and is a total of 1,289km (801mi) long. It rises on the summit of Amarkantak Hill in the Madhya Pradesh state, and for the first 200 m of its course winds among the Mandla Hills, which form the head of the Satpura range; then at Jabalpur, passing through the 'Marble Rocks', it enters its proper valley between the Vindhyan and Satpura ranges, and pursues a direct westerly course to the Gulf of Khambhat. Its total course through the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat and it amounts to about 800 m, and it falls into the sea in the Bharuch district of Gujarat.

It receives the drainage of the northern slopes of the Satpuras, but not that of the Vindhyan tableland, the streams from which flow into the Ganges and Jumna. After leaving Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, the river widens out in the fertile district of Bharuch. Below Bharuch city it forms a 13m broad estuary where it enters the Gulf of Khambhat. The Narmada river is not only utilized for irrigation, but for navigation In the rainy season boats of considerable size sail about 60m above Bharuch city. Sea-going vessels of about 70 tons frequent the port of Bharuch, but they are entirely dependent on the tide.

The BJP led Gujarat Government has completed the multi-billion rupee The Sardar Sarovar Dam Project in Kevadia Colony, Bharuch district of Gujarat. The Dam will rise to a height of 130 meters and will provide water to the dry regions of Saurashtra, Kachchh, and North Gujarat. The water utilized by the dam will also been used by the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chattishgarh, and Rajasthan. The dam has also ignited controversy and anti-dam activists led by Medha Patkar formed The Narmada Bachou Andolon Save the Narmada Movement. The Supreme Court in 1999 declared that the Dam should be completed and it slammed the Narmada Bachou Andolon for opposing the construction of the dam. Indian novelist and essayist Arundhati Roy has been an outspoken critic of the dam.

In sanctity the Narmada ranks only second to the Ganges among the rivers of India, and along its whole course are special places of pilgrimage. The most meritorious act that a pilgrim can perform is to walk from the sea to the source of the river and back along the opposite bank. This pilgrimage takes from one to two years to accomplish.

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